Adverse events in FREEDOM-EV
The safety profile in FREEDOM-EV was consistent with previous studies of Orenitram and known prostacyclin-related adverse events1-5*
Adverse Events With Rates at Least 5% Higher on Orenitram Therapy Than on Placebo in FREEDOM-EV (N=690)1
|Pain in jaw||18%||3%|
|Pain in extremity||18%||9%|
|Upper abdominal pain||12%||5%|
- Previous studies included FREEDOM-M, FREEDOM-C, FREEDOM-C2, and FREEDOM-EXT.1-5
Important Safety Information
- Avoid use of Orenitram in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child Pugh Class C) due to increases in systemic exposure.
Warnings and Precautions
- Abrupt discontinuation or sudden large reductions in dosage of Orenitram may result in worsening of PAH symptoms.
- The Orenitram tablet shell does not dissolve. In patients with diverticulosis, Orenitram tablets can lodge in a diverticulum.
- In the 12-week, placebo-controlled, monotherapy study, and an event-driven, placebo-controlled, combination therapy study, adverse reactions that occurred at rates at least 5% higher on Orenitram than on placebo included headache, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, flushing, pain in jaw, pain in extremity, hypokalemia, abdominal discomfort, and upper abdominal pain.
- Co-administration of Orenitram and the CYP2C8 enzyme inhibitor gemfibrozil increases exposure to treprostinil; therefore, Orenitram dosage reduction may be necessary in these patients.
- Animal reproductive studies with Orenitram have shown an adverse effect on the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with Orenitram in pregnant women.
- It is not known whether treprostinil is excreted in human milk or if it affects the breastfed infant or milk production.
- Safety and effectiveness of Orenitram in pediatric patients have not been established.
- Use of Orenitram in patients aged 65 years and over demonstrated slightly higher absolute and relative adverse event rates compared to younger patients. Caution should be used when selecting a dose for geriatric patients.
- There is a marked increase in the systemic exposure to treprostinil in hepatically impaired patients.
Orenitram is a prostacyclin mimetic indicated for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (WHO Group 1) to delay disease progression and to improve exercise capacity. The studies that established effectiveness included predominately patients with WHO functional class II-III symptoms and etiologies of idiopathic or heritable PAH (66%) or PAH associated with connective tissue disease (26%).
References: 1. Orenitram [package insert]. Research Triangle Park, NC: United Therapeutics Corporation; 2019. 2. Tapson VF, Torres F, Kermeen F, et al. Oral treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients on background endothelin receptor antagonist and/or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy (the FREEDOM-C study): a randomized controlled trial. Chest. 2012;142(6):1383-1390. 3. Tapson VF, Jing ZC, Xu KF, et al; FREEDOM-C2 Study Team. Oral treprostinil for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in patients receiving background endothelin receptor antagonist and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy (the FREEDOM-C2 study): a randomized controlled trial. Chest. 2013;144(3):952-958. 4. Jing ZC, Parikh K, Pulido T, et al. Efficacy and safety of oral treprostinil monotherapy for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation. 2013;127(5):624-633. 5. White RJ, Parikh K, Allen R, et al. EXPRESS: Long term study of oral treprostinil to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension: dosing, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics [published online July 10, 2019]. Pulm Circ. doi: 10.1177/2045894019866335.